Passover -The Day of The Wave Sheaf – and Our Liberation! – March 2013

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by Batya Wootten

“The angel said to the women,
‘Do not be afraid; for I know that you are looking for Yeshua who has
been crucified. He is not here, for He has risen, just as He said”
(Matthew 28:5-6).

One of the most exciting verses in all of Scripture follows the above verses: “Go quickly and tell His disciples that He has risen from the dead!” (vs 7).

In Messiah Yeshua we have access to a New, and Better Covenant; in Him, we find the gift of eternal life (John 17:3; Hebrews 7:22; 8:6; 12:24).

Mankind has no greater hope than the hope of eternal life in Messiah. The Day of His Resurrection has to be one of the most important days in the history of mankind; the other two being the days of His birth and His death. The problem is, the more we uncover the contaminated history of Easter, the more Believers tend to turn away from celebrating His Resurrection. The more they search out their Jewish/Hebraic Roots, the more they trade in a celebration of Easter for a celebration of Passover. In this way, they lose even their distorted connection to the Resurrection, and it is not being replaced. The proverbial baby gets thrown out with the dirty bath water.

This is sad, because Passover is about the death of the Lamb of God, Messiah Yeshua, and if we only tell that portion of the story, we are only telling part of YHVH’s plan of Redemption. If we do not celebrate the Resurrection, we are not being a living witness to Yah’s plan of redemption for His people. We are not telling “the rest of the story…”

Passover celebrations are incomplete stories until they are connected to the Day of the Wave Sheaf – which Day foretold Yeshua’s Resurrection. (We cannot fully address this subject here, but will attempt an overview. We address the following topics in several Chapters in the book,
Israel’s Feasts and their Fullness.)

To better understand Israel’s feasts, we need to realize that two of the mandated Feasts have two required days of celebration: The Feast of Unleavened Bread and the First and Last Days of Tabernacles, which gives us a total of seven feast days (not counting the Sabbath, which is also a feast).

The Chart to the right, from Israel’s Feasts…, will help us see that there is a difference in the two days of Passover and the Wave Sheaf: Both call for work and work is not allowed on a Sabbath. Thus, they are different feasts, and they foretold the work of Messiah Yeshua. On Passover, one had to slay a lamb and carry wood for an offering. On the Day of the Wave Sheaf, the first of the first fruits of the barley harvest had to be gathered and presented to the Priests. On a Passover Day long ago, Messiah carried a wooden cross on which He was sacrificed. Then, on the Day of the Wave Sheaf, He rose from the dead and presented Himself to YHVH: The “First of Firstfruits,” the Firstborn from the dead, the first to rise and never die again, the Firstborn of many brethren (Exodus 12:3-15,25; Leviticus; 23:10; Jeremiah 17:27; Romans 8:23,29; 1 Corinthians 15:20,23; Colossians 1:18; James 1:18).

Trying To “Do it Right”
As we enter into this age of transition and seek to return to the ancient ways of our forefathers, we can mistakenly get caught up in wanting to “do it right” when we celebrate the feasts. We study their history only to get more and more frustrated as we try to do them “perfectly.”

Liberation comes when we realize that we cannot keep the feasts exactly, because they required Temple sacrifices. More liberation comes when we realize that our Heavenly Father knows this fact, and He nonetheless wants us to “celebrate” His feasts. He wants us to rehearse them, because they are “Holy Rehearsals” that continually tell of His plan of redemption for His people.

More liberation comes when we realize that we are dealing with two people groups that have both fallen short – but in different ways. “Both the houses of Israel,” both Ephraim and Judah, have stumbled over the One Who would be a “Sanctuary” to them. Both have stumbled over and misrepresented the Messiah (Isaiah 8:14; John 2:19-22; Romans 11:25). They are like the two sons in Yeshua’s parable, who were asked to go and work in their father’s vineyard. One said he would go, and didn’t, the other said he wouldn’t go, then repented and went. Either way, both sons failed the father in the story. And both Ephraim and Judah have failed the Father in Heaven (Matthew 21:28-31). We need to realize this fact, repent, and move on with the Almighty. We also need to realize that, in our day, we cannot look to either house for a perfect record of how and why we should celebrate the feasts. Judah celebrates them, but does not realize that they are types and shadows of Messiah Yeshua. Christianity knows something about the Christed One, but essentially does not have a clue about how to celebrate Him based on the Father’s feasts.

The good news is that Ephraim and Judah also are like the two sons in the Parable of the Prodigal. In that story, Ephraim represents the one who was out playing with the pigs. Yet, the Father in Heaven loves him, and longs to have him return (Jeremiah 31:20). But, in addition to wanting him to return, He wants to use Ephraim to reach His other beloved son, Judah.

Our God loves the Jewish people with an unending love. Messiah Yeshua longed to gather them, but they would not, so He warned that they would not see Him again until they first say, “Blessed is He Who come in the Name of YHVH.” And, it is “wild branch” Ephraim who is meant to walk in a way that provokes Judah to want what Ephraim has (Luke 13:34-35; Romans 11).

Ephraim needs to properly represent the Messiah to Judah, he needs to to properly represent the joy of Yeshua’s salvation, to even share his hope of eternal redemption – through his walk and not through his talk. So it is that Ephraim needs to freed from his mistaken desire to “do it right” so that he can be liberated to do it right in the Spirit! This is to say that the Father’s mercies are new every morning, He is always doing a new thing in the earth, and the new thing that He wants to do now is to use Ephraim in a wondrous new way.

That way is revealed in the parable of the Prodigal. In it, the older brother (Judah) was out in the field and he became jealous when his brother came home and began to “celebrate” with his father (see Luke 15:11-32).

“Celebrating our relationship with our Father” is key to Ephraim being able to do what YHVH wants to have done at this time – which is to help reunite His beloved House of Israel; to gather all twelve tribes, to make the two sticks of the two houses, “One” in His hand (Ezekiel 37:15-28).

Friends, the only way we can do it “right” in this hour is by being liberated to celebrate the feasts like never before. If we get bound up by the traditions of men, be they Jewish or Christian, we will not be free to do our job. And we want to do it, because it is a joyous job! We are most privileged to be called by the Master to celebrate in Him! So let us not lose sight of the Redeemer in our pursuit of Hebraic redemption. Let us instead take a fresh look at all of the feasts – because they are replete with messages about the redemption of the whole house of Israel!

Celebrating Firstfruits
A Complicated Cake Recipe

We want to celebrate Yom HaBikkurim, the Day of the Wavesheaf, the Day of the First of Firstfruits, but, when and how do we do it? Its timing is connected to death, burial, and resurrection of our Messiah, and that is one of the most hotly debated topics in our faith: On which day was He crucified and when did He arise? Was He in the earth for three full days and nights?

If celebrating Firstfruits were likened to baking a cake, we would say that it is a complicated recipe.

For instance, we are supposed to celebrate the Day of Firstfruits (which speaks of Messiah’s Resurrection) on “the morrow after the Sabbath” (Leviticus 23:11, KJV). But people argue about “which Sabbath – the weekly Sabbath, or a Feast Sabbath?”

Firstfruits is also inextricably attached to Shavuot, or Pentecost; on it, we begin a 50 day count that leads to Shavuot (Deuteronomy 16:9-10). And, the date for Shavuot must: 1) Be preceded by 7 Sabbaths (not more or less). 2) Be the next day, or mochorath, after a Sabbath (Strong’s # H4283). 3) Be a 50th day. 4) Mark the end of a counting begun the day after a weekly Sabbath.

Add to this recipe the facts that, in Biblical thought, days begin in the evening, plus the issue of whether to calculate months based on a dark, or moon sliver, and years based on lunar months and/or a solar year.

Frost the cake with the all-important, yet often overlooked fact that, Passover can occur on different weekdays, so we do not always have three days and nights between Passover and the Day of Firstfruits. And, Messiah Yeshua said He would be in the earth for “three days and three nights” (Matthew 12:40).

Finally, top it with the awful truth about the enmity that has existed for centuries between Christians and Jews. Christians followed the calculations of an anti-Jewish Constantine, and the majority of the Jewish people refused to accept the truth about Yeshua’s Resurrection.

With this background, we can see why people argue so fiercely over this recipe and why we often have set before us a slightly mangled cake.

To resolve the issue, to be true peacemakers, let us realize that repre-senting “three days and three nights” was, and still is, an important point in Christian celebrations of the Resurrection. Thus, it could be one reason why the people accepted Constantine’s mistaken fixed date for Easter. The above lists some of the ingredients we need to include in order to make our cake. But, rather than be angry with people for not having correctly followed the recipe, let us take into account another important ingredient:

In the end, the Feasts of Israel belong to the God of Israel. They are parts that tell the whole of His plan of Redemption for His children. And… the God of Israel never slumbers nor sleeps. So, He has not been asleep while His many children have been trying to make their cakes. And… if He allowed the recipe to be so difficult to follow exactly, could it be that He is sending us a message via our collective failures?

It is said that Thomas Edison knew 999 ways how not to make a light bulb, and on his 1000th try, he succeeded. We too, want to succeed with our “light bulb-cake,” but, what is “success” in YHVH’s eyes?

Since He is “Love,” can we possibly hope to represent Him if we do not love and care for His other children – even if their cakes are not perfect? He says we cannot love Him and hate our brothers. So, like Him, we need to encourage and not belittle brethren (Jeremiah 29:11; 1 John 4:16,20).

We can do this without compromising our walk or neglecting to follow His recipe. The ingredients are simple: when it comes to our selves, we look for commitment without compromise, but when dealing with others, we must show mercy without measure. We want to do this because of our love for our Father: He wants to draw all of His children to Himself, and He is looking to His wiser children to help Him to do that.

One way we can help is by understanding that the Day of the Wave Sheaf count must begin on the “morrow after the [weekly] Sabbath.” Other counting systems do not work. And, Passover can fall on different weekdays (in 2012 it began on a Friday and in 2013 on a Monday). This means, even though there were “three days and three nights” between Passover and Firstfruits at the time of Messiah’s sacrifice – that will not always be the case. Firstfruits will always fall on the First Day of the week, but it will not always be three days after Passover. We would do well to realize that our Christian brothers and sisters wanted to always have that ingredient included in their cakes.

We also need to understand that brother Judah has paid little attention to Yom HaBikkurim, because he thinks it is only about earthly agriculture.

But it foreshadows an eternal harvest of souls! It is about our hope of eternal redemption in Messiah! And nothing is more important than that!

So here we stand. We have all the ingredients and can try to make a better cake, but like so many food items, it probably needs to be stirred with love. Moreover, we suggest that in this “cake baking contest,” the Judge of All will probably give us more points for helping our brothers be better bakers than He will for us having made “a perfect cake.”

By YHVH’s mercy and grace, may it be said that we were wise enough to do both!

Various Excerpts From “Redeemed Israel…”
The shadowy days of Passover and the Wave Sheaf foretold the death and resurrection of the Lamb of God. Passover depicted His sacrifice on our behalf, by which He took away our sins. The first fruits Wave Sheaf foretold His being the first to be raised from the dead never to die again. On these days, Yeshua was working. He was canceling out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us. He was disarming rulers and authorities and making a public display of them. On Passover He was paying the price for our sins, on the Day of the Wave Sheaf, being a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek, He entered into Heaven to offer Himself as the First of First Fruits. He also began to bring in the sheaves that are His New Covenant people (Psa 126:6; John 1:29; Acts 13:34; Col 2:14-15; Heb 9:11).

These two days speak of the work of Yeshua. YHVH said of His Firstborn, “My covenant shall be confirmed to him. So I will establish his seed forever” (Psa 89:28-29). In fulfillment of this promise, Yeshua has myriads of children who will live eternally. They are children for whom He travailed in labor (Isa 53:10-11; Luke 22:44). His was a painful, hard labor that was culminated on the cross. It also was a labor of love, destined to give birth to a new creation. It was a labor so painful that He died from it. Yeshua died to give birth to the sons of righteousness.

Through faith in this One who worked for, and paid the price for our sins, we become sons of God: To “as many as received Him…He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name” (John 1:12). When we believe in Yeshua’s Name, God’s seed abides in us and we are born anew of His Spirit (1 John 3:9). We are “born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and abiding word of God” (1 Pet 1:23). We become the eternal descendants promised to the Firstborn. We have His imperishable seed abiding in us and are the Israel of God (Gal 6:16). In Philippians 1:6, Paul said, “I am confident…that He who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Messiah Yeshua.” We are His workmanship. We are a good work, created in the Messiah for good works, which He prepared beforehand so that we might walk in them. We are a people who have the hope of eternal life through Yeshua’s Passover and Wavesheaf labors in our behalf (Acts 13:40-41; Eph 2:10).

The Pattern Fulfilled
The Passover lamb was slain on the fourteenth of Abib, and the next day, on the feast of Unleavened Bread, our forefathers left Egypt. Fifty days after the Day of the Wave Sheaf, on the Feast of Weeks (Shavuot), the Father gave them the Ten Commandments. Similarly, Messiah Yeshua was crucified on the fourteenth of Abib (Passover), was in the tomb on the fifteenth (Unleavened Bread), and after three days was resurrected in fulfillment of the First Fruits Wave Sheaf. Fifty days later, the Ruach HaKodesh, He Who fills us with the Living Torah, was poured out on the Believers gathered in Jerusalem for Pentecost (Shavuot).

Yom HaBikkurim – Day of the Wave Sheaf
On the day of the Wave Sheaf, in ancient Israel, the priest waved a sheaf of the first fruits of the barley harvest before the Almighty. This day is called Yom HaBikkurim, or Day of the Wave Sheaf, or Feast of the Harvest (Num 28:26). Yom means day, and bikkurim is plural for bikkur, which speaks of the first ripe fruits of a crop. All first crops were re’shiyth, as in head or beginning, but this was the first offering of the year. It was the first of the first fruits Israel offered. (See Footnote # 1.)

They could not keep this day in the wilderness, where they ate manna from heaven. They could not honor it until they entered into the Land, and stopped eating manna and began to eat of its produce. They were given an omer of manna in the wilderness, and an omer/sheaf of barley began their first fruits offerings in the Land (Exo 16:16; Lev 23:10; Josh 5:10-12). Yom HaBikkurim is outlined in Leviticus 23:10-15….

Messiah Yeshua as High PriestFulfilled by a Single Priest
This day depicts a priest standing alone and waving a sheaf before YHVH – so the congregation might be accepted. This speaks of Messiah, Who is a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.” It portrays Yeshua, as does the omer/sheaf being waved. He is the hidden manna, our sin sacrifice and burnt offering, He is “Messiah, the first fruits” (Heb 7:17; 1 Cor 15:23; Rev 2:17).

Yeshua fulfills the Day of the Wave Sheaf in many ways. Its offering was to be waved “on the day after the Sabbath,” meaning the first day of the week (Sunday). After appearing in the Garden to Mary Magdalene, on that day, He then appeared before our Father in Heaven in our behalf. He presented Himself to the Father on that day, so that His faithful ones might be accepted, both individually, and as His congregation of firstborn ones (Luke 24:1; John 20:17-19; Rom 8:29; Heb 12:22-24).

Sheaves in Scripture
We first read of a sheaf in Scripture in the story of Joseph’s dream. In it, Joseph saw eleven sheaves bow down before his sheaf. (See Note 2.)
The eleven sheaves represented his brothers, who would ultimately have to bow before him (Gen 37:5-11; 43:28). The dream came true when Joseph’s brothers had to bow before him after he had become the second man in Egypt, and was the one who could save them from starvation.

Sheaves (plural) can represent a person or persons. A literal sheaf speaks of a batch that is tied together. The wave sheaf presented on Yom HaBikkurim was called an omer, which comes from amar, meaning to chastise, as if piling blows, to gather grain and bind sheaves together. (See Note 3.) Here, we again see a shadow of our High Priest, Yeshua, in that “the chastening for our well-being fell upon Him” (Isa 53:5). (An omer also is a unit of dry measure equal to a tenth of an ephah, which equals about 3.5 liters, or 3.7 quarts [Exo 16:36]).

In this feast we also see a spirit of giving, for Israel was commanded to leave the occasional forgotten sheaf and the gleanings of the harvest in the corners of their fields so they could be used to feed the stranger, the fatherless, the widow and the poor. In this way we see Ruth gleaning in the fields of Boaz. For, not leaving the corners of one’s field for the poor to glean stopped the flow of blessing from Yah’s hand.
This principle helped teach the children of Israel that the joy of their harvest is expressed in the form of charity to others. His Feasts are to be times of joyous giving (Lev 19:9,22; Deu 24:19-22; Ruth 2:7,15, 2:15; Job 24:10).

The Barley Sheaf
The sheaf waved for this first of first fruits offering was barley. On the first day of the week following the regular Sabbath during Unleavened Bread, the Harvest of this cereal grain began. (see Note 4). Sown in the winter, barley was the first grain to ripen in the spring. Because of its deep roots, barley has a tremendous ability to absorb nutrients from the soil so it gives a healthy boost to those who eat it. (See Note 5.) Similarly we who receive Messiah Yeshua as Lord are to be firmly rooted in Him that we might be built up, healthy, and solidly established in our faith (Col 2:6-7).

First fruits were the choicest and consecrated, or holy unto YHVH. They were re’shiyth, the head, the beginning (Exo 23:19). Note 6 The firstborn of man and beast belonged to YHVH, as did the first fruits of the earth. Some first fruits were presented to the priests. All were to be offered with thanksgiving and praise unto the Giver of All Things, YHVH. (See Note 7.)

The Ceremony
To fulfill the Day of the Wave Sheaf, the celebrant would take the first sheaf from his barley harvest to the priest, who would then wave, or present it before Yah in the Temple, so the celebrant would be accepted. As it is written: “He shall wave the sheaf before the LORD for you to be accepted; on the day after the sabbath the priest shall wave it” (Lev 23:11). This Day saw fulfillment in the heavens when Yeshua presented Himself as the First of First Fruitsthat we might in turn be “accepted.”

He “did not enter a holy place made with hands…but into heaven itself, to appear in the presence of God for us.” He is the substance of the Day of the Sheaf, the essence of the First of the First Fruits offering. He was raised from the dead as the first fruit of those who are asleep. As our High Priest, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, one not made with hands, to appear in the presence of the Almighty God for our sakes. He did so, “Once and for all” (Exo 25:40; Rom 6:10; 1 Cor 15:20,23; Heb 7:27; 9:11-24; 10:10

Yeshua’s resurrection is a type of harvest that marked the beginning of our Father’s harvest season. We are part of that eternal harvest. In Yeshua, we become fruit that will last for eternity. Yeshua is “the firstborn among many brethren.” As His brethren, we “also have the first fruits of the Spirit.” We “groan within ourselves” because we are “waiting eagerly for our adoption as sons, [which is] the redemption of our body.”Note 8 “In the exercise of His will He brought us forth by the word of truth, so that we would be a kind of first fruits among His creatures.” “But each in his own order: Messiah the first fruit, after that those who are His at His coming” (Rom 8:23,29; James 1:18; 1 Cor 15:23).

The Congregation of the Firstborn
Yeshua also is the re’shiyth, the head of the church/ekklesia. As His people, we are called “to the general assembly and ekklesia of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect” (Col 1:18, 24; Heb 12:23). Yeshua is the Firstborn and we are His Firstborn Congregation. He is first in all things. He fulfills the shadow of Wave Sheaf offering. He is choice and first in every way and has first place in everything; all things are being summed up in Him. He is all, and can be found in all (Eph 1:10-11,23). Yeshua is:

* The firstborn of the Father (Heb 1:6)
* The firstborn of every creature (Col 1:15)
* The firstborn of Mary/Miryam (Mat 1:23-25)
* The firstborn from the dead (Rev 1:5)
* The firstborn of many brethren (Rom 8:29)
* The First (Aleph) and Last (Tav) – The Alpha and Omega – The Beginning and End (Isa 41:4; 44:6; 48:12; Rev 1:8, 17; 21:6; 22:13).

Yeshua also is the epitome of all that is “Israel.” (See Note 9.) “It is the Father’s good pleasure for Israel’s fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself (Col 1:18-20).

Yom HaBikkurim is a day of firsts: It reminds us that our God is the source of all blessings, that we are to seek first His Kingdom, and that He is always to be our first love (Mat 6:33; 1 John 4:9; Rev 2:4.). This day speaks of Messiah’s first fruits Resurrection and His acceptable offering. For Believers, there is no more important or meaningful day than the day in which He arose from the dead and ascended into Heaven to offer Himself in our behalf. In Him we find the blessed hope of resurrection and life eternal.

Celebrating the Day of the Wave Sheaf
One way to celebrate this awesome day is to take individual sheaves of barley and tie them with colorful ribbons so they can be properly presented. Gather family and friends and joyously wave barley sheaves before the Almighty while offering Him songs of thanksgiving and praise.

In Temple times there was an elaborate ceremony that involved bringing offerings as a thanksgiving tithe. A priest would meet the pilgrims on the edge of the city and lead them up to the Temple Mount with music, praise, psalms and dance. There, he would take the sheaves from the worshipers, lift them in the air and wave them in every direction, thus recognizing the Father’s provision and sovereignty over the earth. This ceremony portray-ed the idea that, if He was faithful in the early harvest, He would similarly be faithful to provide for them in the late harvest. This is a time to have faith that Abba will show Himself mighty at Shavuot, for, it is a “Divine Appointment,” a time that He has especially set aside to meet with us.

When the priest waved the sheaf back and forth it was a type of prayer before the Holy One. This feast offers an excellent time for prayer. As we celebrate, we want to be as priests before our God. Even as Aaron wore a breastplate, or ephod, with stones that represented all twelve tribes, so we want to similarly bear the burden of all the tribes on our hearts. We want to intercede in prayer for the whole house of Israel.

To celebrate, have someone dress as a priest and others dress as Israelites who are bringing in their sheaves. (Barley sheaves can be ordered from

As you celebrate, let someone read appropriate Scripture verses while the people act out the feast. Pray! Sing! Rejoice! Give gifts! Worship and celebrate on this day that speaks of the Resurrection work of Messiah Yeshua!

This also is an excellent time to take special note of new Believers and to have them share their testimony. Those who have nurtured them into the faith can present them before the body as “precious fruits.” This feast is about “firsts,” and new converts have taken the first steps of new life in Messiah (Rom 16:5; 1 Cor 16:15).

The fifty days that lead to Shavuot are days of expectation. So give everyone, especially the children, a calendar on which they can begin to count off the 50 days until Shavuot. The days between the waving of the first fruits barley sheaf and the coming wheat harvest speak of our earthly sojourn. Like Abraham, we are strangers and exiles in this earth. Our time here is one of expectation, of knowing the Father will provide for us in eternity. We can expect Him to provide on this earthly upcoming day! And more importantly, in Messiah, we know we have a coming inheritance and will be part of His final “Ingathering”! (See Note 10.)

On this day, Israel offered both bread and wine, so it is a good time to partake of these elements in Messiah’s Name (Lev 23:12-13).

On the Day of the Wave Sheaf we begin our fifty-day count. With great expectation begin to mark off the days until Shavuot. Let us celebrate the wonderful Day of the Wave Sheaf. Let us begin the count, and let us count with expectant hearts.

Footnotes ___________________________

1 Yom: Strong’s and Brown-Driver-Briggs (S&BDB) # H3117. Bikkur(im): #H1061. Re’shiyth. “The first [re’shiyth] of the first fruits [bikkurim]” (Exo 23:19). Fruits and fruits: a single sheaf contains fruits.
2 S&BDB #’s H485 and 481, something bound; a sheaf. H481: ‘alam, to tie fast; hence, to be tongue-tied: bind, be dumb, put to silence.
3 Omer: S&BDB #’s H 6016, 6014.
4 Some say a symbolic barley sheaf was harvested at the beginning of the day (which would be in the evening) so the people could begin harvesting in the morning. But the Word says, “‘Until you have brought in the offering… you shall eat neither bread nor roasted grain nor new growth” (Lev 23:14). The people were to bring the offering and it is not likely that the general population would be working in the fields when it was getting dark.
5 2 Kings 4:42 defines “bread of the first fruits” as “loaves of barley.”Barley is said to contain all the vitamins, minerals, and proteins necessary for the human diet. It is thought to give instant access to vital nutrients. See www.aimforenerg
6 Re’shiyth: head or beginning. S&BDB # H7225.
7 Exo 13:2; 11-13, 22:29; Lev 19:23-25; Neh 10:34-39.
8 The spirit of adoption is mentioned only five times in Scripture. All must receive it to become sons of God and it belongs to “the sons of Israel” (Rom 8:15,23; 9:4;Gal 4:5; Eph 1:5), See Redeemed Israel – Reunited and Restored chapter 1.
9 Yeshua is YHVH’s Firstborn, and He is His “Servant” named “Israel” (Exo 4:22; Isa 49:3; Hos 11:1: Mat 2:15,18).
10 Heb 11:13- 14; Acts 26:18; Eph 1:11,14,18; Col 1:12; 1 Pet 1:4.